Current Projects

Establishing a Prison Nursery in Missouri: In 2021-2022, Missouri Appleseed researched and advocated for the establishment of a prison nursery in Missouri. Currently, when a woman gives birth in Department of Corrections custody, she and her baby are separated ​shortly after birth. Many other countries and 9 U.S. states have prison nurseries allowing nonviolent mothers to care for their infants. Research into U.S. prison nurseries has found low recidivism among mothers, no evidence nurseries negatively impact infants, and some evidence they lead to better infant outcomes than separation. At the end of Missouri’s 2022 legislative session, Senate Bill 638 passed with language establishing a prison nursery in Missouri ​for women with 18 months or less left on their sentences, allowing mothers and infants to bond and to leave the prison together. Now that Missouri will establish a prison nursery, Missouri Appleseed plans to ​support the nursery ​and its implementation.

Community-Based Sentences for Primary Caretakers: The incarceration of a caretaker is an Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE). Medical research has linked ACEs to poor health. When a parent is incarcerated, their children are at greater risk for physical health problems such as asthma, migraines, and later-life heart attacks. They are also at risk for mental health problems such as clinical depression and anxiety.

To prevent poor health outcomes in children, Missouri Appleseed advocated for a Primary Caretaker law in Missouri. Primary Caretaker laws allow judges to ​consider community sentences ​for parents convicted of nonviolent crimes. With community sentences, parents can continue to provide and care for their children. Primary Caretaker laws may reduce foster-care caseloads and improve child health. Since people given community-based sentences are less likely to commit new crimes than people sent to prison, a Primary Caretaker law may also reduce recidivism rates and correctional costs.

On May 13, 2021, Senate Bill 53 was truly agreed to and finally passed with language promoting community diversion programs for nonviolent primary caretakers of dependent children. Senate Bill 53 was signed into law by the governor on July 14, 2021.

Missouri Appleseed will continue to work to educate the Missouri public on parental incarceration, ACEs, and the implementation of Senate Bill 53.

Primary Caretaker Legislation Report – Short Form

Primary Caretaker Legislation Report – Long Form

Medicaid Suspension for Justice-Involved Individuals: Until the 2019 legislative session, Missouri terminated an individual’s Medicaid if that individual was incarcerated. Termination occurred whether the individual was convicted of a crime or merely held pre-trial. Most states only suspend Medicaid for incarcerated individuals. Suspension allows incarcerated individuals to reactivate their health insurance immediately upon release, so that they can maintain access to treatment and essential medications. Individuals leaving confinement with health insurance are less likely to return to jail or prison.

During the 2019 legislative session, Missouri Appleseed worked with St. Louis University law students, psychiatrists, and nonprofits to understand the legal reasoning behind Missouri’s termination policy. The group developed policy recommendations that would better serve Missourians reentering society. Members also testified in favor of Missouri state bills legislating Medicaid suspension rather than termination. On May 16, 2019, Missouri Senate Bill 514 was truly agreed to and finally passed with language changing Missouri’s policy from termination to suspension.

Missouri Appleseed will continue to work to ensure individuals reentering society have access to health care by monitoring Missouri’s implementation of Senate Bill 514. Successful implementation will require communication and collaboration on the state and local level.

Visitation Rights of Children with Incarcerated Parents: As of 2010, more than half of all people incarcerated in the U.S. had minor children. Parental incarceration correlates with negative physical and mental health outcomes for children. While high-quality visitation of incarcerated parents may reduce negative outcomes for children, prison visitation is often poor-quality, logistically difficult, and expensive. Moreover, some children are denied visitation with their incarcerated parents solely on the basis of the parent’s incarceration.

Missouri Appleseed and the law firm Stinson LLP are working together to research current law, policy, and practices in Missouri and to educate stakeholders and decision makers about current research on the benefits of maintaining parent-child relationships even during a parent’s incarceration.

Former Projects

blurred-background-close-up-design-683402Feminine Hygiene in Prisons and Jails: Inadequate feminine hygiene products correlate with infections and poor mental health outcomes for women. With funding from the Missouri Foundation for Health, Missouri Appleseed began in late 2017 to research the feminine products available in Missouri’s two state prisons for women. Almost a year later, Missouri Appleseed submitted its research findings to the Missouri Department of Corrections (MDOC). The report found that the pads provided in Missouri’s prisons were not large or absorbent enough to meet women’s needs. Many women had been making unsanitary homemade tampons to manage their menstruation. In response, lawmakers filed bills to improve access to feminine products in both Missouri’s prisons and its county jails. MDOC also requested funds from the state to purchase adequate-quality pads and tampons. The Missouri house and senate approved funds for better products for MDOC. Then, on May 13, 2021, Missouri Senate Bill 53 was truly agreed to and finally passed with language requiring that feminine hygiene products be provided free of cost not only in prisons but also in jails. Senate Bill 53 was signed into law by the governor on July 14, 2021.

Research Summary – Access to Feminine Hygiene Products in Missouri Prisons

Mental Health Law Survey and Education: Serious mental illness is much more common among justice-involved individuals than among the general population. Nevertheless, most law students do not receive specific instruction on mental illness or mental health law. Research suggests that lawyers who lack experience with mental illness are reluctant to take on mentally ill clients.

In collaboration with forensic psychiatrist Dr. Jacqueline Landess of St. Louis University Medical School, Missouri Appleseed conducted a survey of the Missouri Criminal Bar about mental illness and mental health law: education, attitudes, and personal and professional experiences. Based on survey responses, Missouri Appleseed and Dr. Landess designed a free workshop to supplement the Bar’s knowledge of mental health, legal competency, and special sentencing for the mentally ill. The workshop took place at St. Louis University Law School on July 19th, 2019.

COVID-19 in Missouri Prisons and Jails: Thanks to financial support from Missouri Foundation for Health, Missouri Appleseed, in collaboration with medical and legal professionals, studied the COVID-19 containment policies of Missouri correctional facilities and composed a pandemic protocol to help Missouri correctional facilities during the current pandemic. Their research recognizes Saint Louis County Jail as a model for reform through its processes, protocols, physical enhancements, and low-cost interventions:

Full Report: COVID-19 in Missouri Prisons and Jails

Report Summary: COVID-19 in Missouri Prisons and Jails

The Pandemic Protocol: A Proposal

Dr. Hedwig Lee and Dr. Savannah Larimore’s research on increased COVID-19 rates in counties with prisons analyzes publicly available data on COVID-19 infections in Missouri communities containing prisons and compares it to data from communities that do not contain prisons to gauge whether the COVID-19 risks inherent to prisons put wider communities at risk.

Their report finds that prison incarceration increases the risk of COVID-19 infection in Missouri counties with prisons and that these burdens will be felt the most by some of Missouri’s most marginalized residents, constituting a primary public health concern for Missourians. Therefore, decarceration may be a worthwhile strategy to decrease the rate of COVID-19 infection in Missouri. Read Dr. Lee and Dr. Larimore’s report here:

Report on the Impact of Mass Incarceration on Covid-19 Outcomes in Missouri.

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